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Porter five forces research paper

February 12 Answer the following questions: How much does it cost and how long does it take to enter your market? What are the barriers to entry e. What does it take to make the business scalable?

Have you protected your key technologies? How strictly is your market regulated? Threat of substitution This section of the Five Forces asks you to determine the likelihood that your customers will replace your product or service with an alternative that solves the same need. How many substitute products are available in this market? What is the cost of switching to a substitute product?

How difficult would it be to make the switch? What products or services can you offer that might substitute a market leader? Bargaining power of suppliers This section analyzes how easily suppliers could increase their prices and thus affect your bottom line. Answer these questions: How many suppliers does your company have? How unique is the product or service that they provide? How many alternative suppliers can you find?

How do their prices compare to your current supplier? How expensive would it be to switch from one supplier to another? Bargaining power of buyers On the other end, you also need to determine whether buyers have the power to drive your prices down.

Answer these questions: How many buyers control your sales? How large are the orders you receive? Could your buyers switch suppliers—and how much would it cost for them to switch? Competitive rivalries The four previous forces largely affect this last one. Answer these questions: How many competitors do you have? Who are your biggest competitors? How does the quality of their products or services compare with yours? What distinguishes your company from the competition?

Since that time it has become an important tool for analyzing an organizations industry structure in strategic processes.

Works Cited

Especially, competitive strategy should base on and understanding of industry structures and the way they change. Porter has identified five competitive forces that shape every industry and every market. These forces determine the intensity of competition and hence the profitability and attractiveness of an industry. The objective of corporate strategy should be to modify these competitive forces in a way that improves the position of the organization.

Based on the information derived from the Five Forces Analysis, management can decide how to influence or to exploit particular characteristics of their industry. Bargaining Power of Customers There are two types of buyer power. If each brand of a product is similar to all the others, then the buyer will base the purchase decision mainly on price. This will increase the competitive rivalry, resulting in lower prices, and lower profitability. The other type of buyer power relates to negotiating power. Larger buyers tend to have more leverage with the firm, and can negotiate lower prices. When there are many small buyers of a product, all other things remaining equal, the company supplying the product will have higher prices and higher margins.

Conversely, if a company sells to a few large buyers, those buyers will have significant leverage to negotiate better pricing. Similarly, the bargaining power of customers determines how much customers can impose pressure on margins and volumes. This is also known as Revenue Management System; it understands, anticipates and reacts to the behavior of customer to maximize revenue for the organization.

This takes into account the operating costs and aids AirAsia to optimize prices and allocate capacity to maximize expected revenues. The optimization is done on two levels in AirAsia which are seat and route. Every seat is considered an opportunity to maximize revenue.

Seats are available at various prices in different points of time. A reservation done at a later date will be charged more than the one done earlier. For routes, it can be done by adjusting prices for routes or destinations that have a higher demand when compared to others. The effective method however is to combine these two levels for all flights, all routes so that both the seat and the route are effectively priced for all the flights.


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When multiple suppliers are producing a commoditized product, the company will make its purchase decision based mainly on price, which tends to lower costs. On the other hand, if a single supplier is producing something the company has to have, the company will have little leverage to negotiate a better price. Size plays a factor here as well. If the company is much larger than its suppliers, and purchases in large quantities, then the supplier will have very little power to negotiate. Using Wal-Mart as an example, we find that suppliers have no power because Wal-Mart purchases in such large quantities.

Research Papers Using Porter's Five Forces Model

The Porter Five Forces Analysis will give you a good explanation for the profitability of an industry, and the firms within it. If you want to know why a company is able or unable, to make a decent profit, this is the first analysis you should do. In such situations when the supplier bargaining power is likely to be high, the buying industry often faces a high pressure on margins from their suppliers. The bargaining power of suppliers is also described as the market of inputs. Suppliers of raw materials, components, labor, and services such as expertise to the firm can be a source of power over the firm when there are few substitutes.

Porter's Five Forces: Analyzing the Competition

If you are making biscuits and there is only one person who sells flour, you have no alternative but to buy it from them. Suppliers may refuse to work with the firm or charge excessively high prices for unique resources. For most industries the intensity of competitive rivalry is the major determinant of the competitiveness of the industry. Having an understanding of industry rivals is vital to successfully market a product. Positioning pertains to how the public perceives a product and distinguishes it from competitors.

An organization must be aware of its competitors' marketing strategies and pricing and also be reactive to any changes made. Strategy consultants occasionally use Porter's five forces framework when making a qualitative evaluation of a firm 's strategic position. However, for most consultants, the framework is only a starting point and value chain analysis or another type of analysis may be used in conjunction with this model. According to Porter, the five forces framework should be used at the line-of-business industry level; it is not designed to be used at the industry group or industry sector level.

A firm which competes in a single industry should develop, at a minimum, one five forces analysis for its industry. Porter makes clear that for diversified companies, the primary issue in corporate strategy is the selection of industries lines of business in which the company will compete. The average Fortune Global 1, company competes in 52 industries [4]. Porter's framework has been challenged by other academics and strategists. For instance, Kevin P. Coyne and Somu Subramaniam claim that three dubious assumptions underlie the five forces:. Using game theory , they added the concept of complementors also called "the 6th force" to try to explain the reasoning behind strategic alliances.

Complementors are known as the impact of related products and services already in the market.

Martyn Richard Jones, while consulting at Groupe Bull , developed an augmented five forces model in Scotland in It is based on Porter's Framework and includes Government national and regional as well as pressure groups as the notional 6th force. This model was the result of work carried out as part of Groupe Bull 's Knowledge Asset Management Organisation initiative.

Porter indirectly rebutted the assertions of other forces, by referring to innovation, government, and complementary products and services as "factors" that affect the five forces.